The French ruled Algeria for almost 132 years, they invaded Algeria in 1830 and captured it. In 1848 they controlled Algeria and became an integral part of the Algerian government. Many of the Europeans migrated to Algeria and these migrants were called Pied Noirs, they enjoyed all the facilities and services while on the contrary the native Muslims lacked basic rights.
The revolution party in Algeria, the National Liberation Front (FLN) was founded on 1st November 1954 by young Algerian Muslims, a guerilla organization which was formed in order to protect the rights of the Algerian natives and attain independence from French rule, the FLN took action against the French and started a war, they set in motion a series of attacks against the police and the military officers, five Pied Noirs and two Algerians were killed in this assault.
November 1 marks the beginning of the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution that lasted for seven years. As a result of this war Algeria attained Independence after 100 years of French rule. It was not an easy time, there were several uprisings and in the year 1956 the FLN threatened to overrun the colonial cities which were homes to the European migrants. In order to concentrate all their forces to stop the uprisings and put an end to FLN the French granted Tunisia and Morocco independence.
On March 18 1962, in Evian (a commune in France), the French and the members of FLN signed a peace agreement in which the Algerian’s were promised independence. The agreement stated that the Europeans would return to their homeland but they could stay in Algeria as foreigners, or could even take Algerian citizenship. More than 100 000 Muslims and 10 000 French soldiers were killed in the war along with thousands of civilian native Muslims and European immigrants.
On 1st of November the people of Algeria commemorate the anniversary of the Revolution in Algeria. It is a public holiday and is mostly celebrated at a political level. There are gatherings, meetings, parades, rallies and speeches. Couscous, which is the national food of Algeria, is prepared in most of the Algerian homes, it is a form of pasta on top of which there is usually meat of freshly slaughtered roast. Music concerts highlighting Algerian artists, patriotic and cultural events and seminars are arranged in Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The general public usually spend their day by going to the beach or playing or watching soccer which is the most prevalent sport in Algeria.
In 2014, Algeria celebrated the 60th anniversary of the November Revolution. The President of People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, Abdelaziz Boutiflika, paid tribute to the martyrs of the National Liberation War at the Martyrs’ square of Al – Alia cemetery in Algiers. The president laid a wreath in front of the memorial structure, recited Surah Fatiha from the Holy Quran and paid homage to the martyrs before kissing the national flag.