Myths about Columbus’ Expeditions Dispelled
Columbus set out to prove the earth was round.
FACT: At the end of the 15th Century, most everyone knew the
earth was a sphere. What was in question, however, was the size
of the earth–its circumference. Columbus underestimated the
size of the earth by one-fourth.
MYTH: Queen Isabella sold the crown jewels to pay for Columbus’
FACT: The queen may have suggested this at some point, but her
financial advisers assured her that there were other ways to
finance the enterprise. One way was to make the city of Palos
pay back a debt to the crown by providing two of the ships.
Another way was to get Italian financial backing for part of the
expenses. The crown had to put up very little money from the
MYTH: The crew of the three ships on the voyage of discovery was
made up mainly of criminals and nare-do-goods.
FACT: The crew was primarily comprised of seasoned sailors from
the towns of Palos and Moguer, Spain, thanks to the efforts of
the Pinzon brothers. Just in case Columbus might have had
trouble attracting a crew, the crown did offer amnesty to
criminals. However, only four criminals were on board: one a
convicted murderer (he killed a man in a quarrel); the other
three, accused of freeing him from prison.
MYTH: Several hundred sailors were aboard the three caravels on
the initial voyage in 1492. The ships were relatively large for
the anticipated long journey on an unpredictable sea.
FACT: Only 90 men made the first voyage of discovery. The ships
were quite tiny by modern standards–no longer than a tennis
court, and less than 30 feet wide. The Santa Maria had 40 men
aboard, the Pinta, 26, and the Ni$a, 24. Only the Ni$a and the
Pinta returned to Spain, as the Santa Maria was shipwrecked on
Christmas Day, 1492. 39 men volunteered to stay behind at the
fortress called “La Navidad” on the northern coast of present-day
Haiti (they all perished at the hands of the Indians prior to the
return of Columbus the following year).
MYTH: Columbus suffered from syphilis and probably died from it.
FACT: Columbus suffered in later life from a form of gout–an
arthritic condition in his joints caused by the rigors of the
sea. His eyesight was also declining. While syphilis was
introduced into Europe after 1492, probably by the Indians
Columbus brought back to Spain or by the sailors who had contact
with them in the new world, Columbus was not infected by it.
MYTH: Columbus died a pauper, in chains, in a Spanish prison.
FACT: Despite the fact that the Spanish crown retracted some of
the privileges promised to Columbus, he was a relatively rich man
at the time of his death. Although he returned to Spain in
chains in 1500 after his third voyage, the King and Queen
apologized for the misunderstanding and had them removed.
Columbus died quietly at the age of 55 in Valladolid, Spain, on
May 20, 1506 in his own apartment attended by family and friends.
MYTH: Columbus is buried in Santo Domingo, the Dominican
FACT: There is much controversy surrounding the whereabouts of
the remains of Columbus. There are records of the transferral of
his remains on different occasions, so that it is possible that
parts of his remains are in several locations. The prevailing
belief, however, is that his primary burial place is in the
Cathedral of Seville, Spain, with some of his bones or ashes in
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and some in Genoa, Italy. At
one time they were in Cuba.
MYTH: Columbus set foot on North American soil at some point now
a part of mainland United States.
FACT: Columbus never saw North America. His first landfall was
in the Bahamas, probably the current San Salvador (Watlings
Island), although even this is disputed (Samana Cay, an island 65
miles south of San Salvador is a strong contender). There are
proponents for seven other possible island landing sites. The
only current U.S. territories either sighted or visited by
Columbus are the U.S. Virgin Islands, which Columbus named on his
second voyage, and Puerto Rico. While in anchor of St. Croix
(USVI) on November 14, 1493, some of Columbus’ crew experienced
the first hostile encounter with the Indians. Five days later he
landed at San Juan Bautista, now Puerto Rico. Later he would
visit the northeastern tip of South America and the eastern coast
of Central America, but never mainland U.S.A. The fact is that
Columbus never admitted that he had discovered a new continent.
Source: International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance
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